Step 1: Preheat the oven to 350°F. Spread the peanuts in a single layer on a baking sheet and toast until golden brown, 5-7 minutes. Remove from the oven and let cool completely.
Step 2: In the bowl of a food processor, pulse the peanuts and flour together until very finely ground. Transfer to a bowl and whisk in the baking powder and salt.
Step 3: In the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, beat the butter and sugar on medium-high speed until well combined and beginning to gain volume, about 2 minutes.
Step 4: Add the peanut butter and beat to combine on medium speed, scraping down the sides of the bowl as needed. Reduce the mixer speed to low and add the vanilla.
Step 5: With the mixer speed on low, add the flour-nut mixture and mix until just combined.
Step 6: Roll the dough into walnut-size balls, and transfer them to two parchment-lined baking sheets, spacing them 1″ apart. Bake for 15-18 minutes, rotating the baking sheets midway through baking, until the edges of the cookies are golden.
Step 7: Remove the baking sheets from the oven and let the cookies cool completely. Repeat with the remaining dough. The cookies will keep for up to 3 days in an airtight container.
Makes about 60 small cookies
Reprinted with permission from Chad Robertson’s Tartine Book No. 3 (2013 Chronicle Books).