Design Guidelines

When a person looks around an object or through a semitransparent plane such as a multistemmed tree, the background on the other side appears to be farther away (Figure 13-37). A similar concept is to place mirrors in selected locations of the exterior walls. Thus, the designer might carefully place an open-canopied tree or similar architectural element in a location where views from the house pass through the tree. ШНІ
Figure 13-40
The visual interest of the surrounding walls in a townhouse garden can be enhanced with shelves of potted plants, mirrors, murals, niches, vines, etc

garden spaces (Figure 13—40). This is typically a necessity to relieve the monotony created by the existing simplicity of the box-like space. This, too, helps to give the illusion of a greater spatial volume. A similar approach is to make the spaces located near the house compara­tively large while making other spaces progressively smaller the farther away they are located from the house (right side of Figure 13—35). Grade changes between individual spaces also help to subtly separate spaces. This, too, gives the illusion of greater distance through the garden. Functions such as entertaining, sitting, eating, reading, and potting that meet the clients’ wishes and fit within the garden area should each be given their own space. SUMMARY
Although each site is unique, some sites require special consideration and design solutions because of their lo­cation in relation to the street, wooded conditions, steep topography, or confined size. Architectural overhead planes such as a pergola should be carefully detailed because of the small scale of the spaces they help to define. through forced perspective. This will make the remainder of the garden area behind the tree look farther away. Figure 13-35
Various techniques of forced perspective can give the illusion of

converging lines

Diminishing size*
greater distance through a townhouse garden. This is a desirable objective for all residential sites, but is more critical in a townhouse garden where small size and upper-story views from neighbors are frequently a notable prob­lem. One other way to increase the overall feeling of size is to force views through and/ or around various elements such as trees, walls/fences, water features, and sculpture. The individual subspaces may be allowed to overlap or might be separated by a short distance depending on functional and spatial considerations. On the ground plane, different pavement materials can be employed to give each space its own character and identity. One use of perimeter walls/fences is to hang plants. Various types of overhead planes might be used for different subspaces in the garden to reinforce spatial identity as discussed in the previous para­graphs. This will give a greater sense of depth and distance to the spaces as viewed from inside or near the house. Collectively, these techniques create multiple subspaces within the framework of the perimeter garden walls, just as furniture, room dividers, house plants, rugs, and so on do in interior rooms. Provide Overhead Planes Overhead planes should be strategically located through­out a townhouse garden in coordination with the other elements of the design. At a more detailed scale, individual spaces can be given definition and identity by a number of means. You should com­prehend the following about these special sites:
• Special conditions or problems of a corner site
• Design guidelines for developing a site plan for a cor­ner site
• Special conditions and issues of a wooded site
• Design guidelines for developing a site plan for a
wooded site
• Unique conditions and issues of a sloped site
• Design guidelines for developing a site plan for a
sloped site
• Special conditions or problems of a townhouse gar­den site
• Design guidelines for developing a site plan for a townhouse garden Like other residential design projects, the de­signer should start by organizing the site into different outdoor uses (Figure 13—32). Given the limited size of the townhouse garden, the surrounding walls are good loca­tions for shelves of plants, hanging plants, or even vines that can grow up the wall surface. A tree canopy, pergola, canvas awning, or other covering should be located over frequently used spaces in a townhouse garden to screen upper-story views and provide a ceiling (Figure 13-39). Concealing the terminus of space or view is a technique common to small gardens in China and Japan. Mirrors act very much like windows in interior rooms and reflect a space back onto itself. These approaches also soften the surrounding vertical planes and make their presence less obvious. Another technique for giving the illusion that the townhouse garden is larger than its actual dimensions is
Figure 13-34
Plant materials can be coordinated with other vertical planes to define subspaces within the garden. Material colors and textures can likewise estab­lish forced perspective by contrasting materials that are coarse textured and/or bright colored near the house with materials that are fine textured and/or light hued at the back end of the garden area (Figure 13—36). Overhead planes will also create shade, a factor that is a necessity for town­house gardens located on the south or west side of a dwelling. These types of sites require distinctive design solutions that solve the partic­ular issues each of these sites possess. Art and sculpture can also be hung on the perimeter walls, again just as in indoor rooms. These techniques are sometimes referred to as “vertical gardens” and are an excellent means of incorporating vegetation in a narrow area. The feeling that a space is larger than it actually is occurs when not everything can be seen at once and when a space is seen disappearing behind an object or vertical plane (Figure 13-38). Figure 13-32
The townhouse garden should be divided into subspaces for visual interest and to create an illusion of a larger site area. Figure 13-37
Forcing views through or around tree trunks or other vertical objects can increase spatial depth.

Updated: 01.11.2014 — 20:26