The overhead plane doesn’t have to cover the entire space. Kitchen
The kitchen is normally a utilitarian room of the house. Figure 2-36
Vertical planes can be used to provide spatial enclosure and privacy in outdoor living and entertaining spaces. Figure 2-35
Circulation should pass along the edges of living and entertaining space. The residents and their guests are apt to spend many hours in this space, allowing them to notice the detail and craftsmanship of materials more closely than in other areas. The overhead plane can be defined with trellises, arbors, pergolas, canvas awnings, tree canopies, and so on (Figure 2—37). Another important consideration is for the designer to establish a sense of enclosure in the outdoor entertaining space, particularly with the vertical and overhead planes. There should be adequate openings in both the vertical and overhead planes of the space to allow for some views and sunlight. Circulation routes also need to be anticipated so they won’t cut directly through a conversation group in a disruptive manner (Figure 2-35). It is normally located where there is easy access to and from outdoors for transporting groceries and taking out the garbage. Figure 2-37
Overhead planes in the living and entertaining space can be defined by natural and artificial elements. If designed properly, it will be the center of outdoor activity for the family’s use as well as formal and informal entertaining of
A variety of accents can be used to create views throughout the backyard. A designer should never just create a space or become overly enamored with its shape without an idea of how the space will actually function. To prevent the outdoor living and entertaining space from becoming too large in scale, it can be organized as a series of smaller subspaces, each accommodating a particular function (sitting, entertaining, sunbathing, reading, and so on). Enclosure by the vertical planes can be created with walls, fences, steep slopes
The outdoor living and entertaining space can be organized as a series of smaller subspaces, each with its own function. At strategic points along the vertical plane, views can be directed toward special accent areas situated on or off the site. However, views should not be allowed to drift off the site in an unplanned manner. of the ground, or plant materials either individually or in combination with each other. Have you ever noticed how many parties you have been to where people tend to congregate in and around the kitchen? Chairs, for example, should be arranged in a generally circular group so people can face each other to talk. The overhead plane can also cast dramatic shadow patterns on the ground plane and provide places to hang such things as potted plants and wind chimes. It may extend over only a portion of the outside living and entertaining space rather than over the entire area (Figure 2—38). The kitchen is often adjacent to the breakfast area and/or dining room, so food can be conveniently transported back and forth. In fact, there should be a conscious effort to establish focal points at various places throughout the site to capture views (Figure 2—39). The ground plane in the outdoor entertaining space should also be given considerable attention. Too many times, a space is designed with little or no idea in mind as to where people will actually sit, what they will look at, or where they will walk through the space. In some instances, it may be desirable to take advantage of views off the site to a golf course, lake, or distant mountain range. Again, the designer can work with all three planes of spatial enclosure to accomplish this. Indoor and outdoor spaces can also be visually integrated by repeating the same materials or patterns on the ground or walls. It is often more desirable to sit beneath an overhead plane with a partial or complete sense of cover than in a wide-open space with a totally open feeling. A ceiling can be extended to the outdoor living and entertaining space by means of an overhead arbor or awning (Figure 2-41). But it is important to note that all the appliances are efficiently located around a central area for ease of working. One of the first considerations for designing the outdoor living and entertaining space is to establish the correct proportions and size so that it will function properly. Figure 2-40
Indoor and outdoor spaces can be visually integrated by making the base plane the same elevation in both spaces. Long, narrow proportions should be avoided because they imply movement, like a hallway, and it is difficult to arrange furniture for conversation. A good kitchen typically has ample counter area for work space and for storing cooking utensils. Where appropriate, an attempt should be made to visually and functionally coordinate the outdoor entertaining space with the adjoining interior room(s) of the house. The size of the space should be determined based on the anticipated number of people who will be using the space along with the required furniture. This creates subspaces, some shaded and some sunny. guests. For this to occur, the space should be comfortable to use throughout the day and evening, with characteristics similar to those of the indoor living and entertaining room. The outdoor living and entertaining space has a number of functions, like those of its indoor counterpart.