If size is unknown, the designer should consult references that identify the size of typical functions on a residential site. For example, shade trees or attractive features could be added to the site if these conditions do not exist for the outdoor living and entertaining space. This type of diagram makes each outdoor space similar to a building where every room is a perfect square. Each space and element listed in the design program should be located on the site when the diagram is complete. Each outdoor room needs special consideration based on the intended use of that space. But when this area is graphically expressed as a freehand bubble at a given scale, the designer is able to see more clearly how much space it actually covers in the plan (Figure 8-2). Each should be drawn as a freehand bubble to approximately the correct size and proportion using the same scale as the base sheet. However, long spaces are good for arrangement of furniture for looking out at other points in the landscape, such as from a porch or veranda (Figure 8—12). Views
9. The proportion of an outdoor space is the relative relationship be­tween length and width. To identify and understand these conditions more clearly, the designer may want to make a list of the ideal site conditions for each space and ele­ment that is to be located on the site. PLAN

site or the ability of the space to function properly. The designer should first place a clean sheet of tracing paper on top of the site analysis. Single car: 9′ X 18′

Figure 8-2
The designer is able to visualize the size of a space better when it is drawn at a given scale. Badminton (doubles): 17′ X 39′ (playing surface)
20′ X 44′ (overall area)
b. Such a space lacks an implication of direction and therefore is well suited for collection, stopping, or gathering. Garbage can: 2′ diameter
b. The de­signer should not be afraid to make mistakes in this early phase of the design process. Volleyball: 30′ X 60′ (playing surface)
45′ X 80′ (overall area)
g. Single wood deck chair with cushions: 2′-6" X 2′-6"
c. For example, the area “100 square feet” may not mean much by itself. Size
Before a functional diagram can be drawn, the designer should know the approximate sizes of the spaces and elements to be included in the design. Sitting
a. Single aluminum lawn chair: 2′ X 2′
b. Long enclosed spaces are also appropriate for directing views in the landscape toward their ends or terminus points (Figure 8—10). Size
2. And it is difficult to arrange furniture for conversation in long, narrow spaces; such an arrangement looks similar to a subway car (the left side of Figure 8—11). Of course, this would not be appropriate. Focal points
10. The site location of each of the required spaces and elements should be based on functional relationships, available space, and existing site conditions. Proportion
4. It is sometimes difficult to comprehend the size of scaled spaces when they are de­scribed only with numbers. The designer should try alternative relationships among the spaces (Figure 8—3). Figure 8-9
Spaces with unequal plan proportions are like hallways and suggest movement. Figure 8-5
Length and width are approxi­mately the same in a space with equal plan proportions. Two garbage cans: 2′ X 6′
c. Available Space The decision as to where to place the various spaces and elements is also dependent on the availability of space. It may be found that certain spaces or elements just don’t fit. With the site analysis serving as a base, it is more likely the designer will keep the site factors in mind while organizing the functional diagram. Swimming
Average-sized pool: 18′ X 36′ (without deck)
need between 24 and 36 sq ft/swimmer
Lap pool: 10′ X 60′
Spa/Jacuzzi: 5′ X 5′ j. Figure 8-12
Spaces with unequal plan proportions permit furniture to be arranged to direct views outward into the land­scape. Circulation
8. If this happens, then there needs to be a change in the design program after consulting with the clients. And there are different ideal site condi­tions for other spaces. Configuration
5. Recreation
a. The outside entry foyer where people stop and gather before entering or after leaving the house is another space where equal plan propor­tions are appropriate (Figure 8-7). Overall area needed: 20 sq ft

6. Also, the designer should have a notion of whether or not all spaces and elements of the design program will fit on the site. This situation may require a reorganization of the functional diagram, a reduc­tion of the size of the space or element, or the elimination of the space or element from the design. For instance, where should the outside eating space be placed in relation to the kitchen? FUNCTIONAL DIA3RAM FLOOR. Once the spaces and elements have been sketched at their approximate scaled sizes, the designer should have a better understanding of where certain uses should be placed on the site. Single aluminum lounge chair (for sitting or sunbathing): 2′ X 6′

g. However, there are times when some or all of the ideal conditions desired for a required space or ele­ment do not exist on the site. If the outdoor living/entertaining space is placed here, what might go on the west side of it? Cooking and food preparation
a. Figure 8-11
The plan proportions of a space influence its ability to be used for gathering and conversation. Or should it be located near the outdoor eating space? Croquet: 38′ X 85′ (playing surface)
50′ X 95′ (overall area)
c. Counter top: 2′ X 4′
c. Sandbox: 4′ X 4′ k. Some decisions about the functional relationship between spaces and ele­ments will be obvious while others need to be studied before decisions are made. Bench arrangement for conversation


f. Should it be located near the play area? This is a better approach than trying to work everything out in one’s head before drawing it. Of course, functions that work together or depend on each other should be placed next to or near each other, whereas functions that are incompatible should be separated. Half-court basketball: 42′ X 40′
i. Six people (picnic table)
Bench by itself: 1′ X 5′

Table by itself: 2′-6" X 5′ Minimum area needed: 5′ X 6′ Preferred area:

d. One common tendency in this step is to draw most spaces as simple circular bubbles (Figure 8—4). 1. After determining the necessary sizes, sketch each space and element of the de­sign program on a blank sheet of paper. Edges
7. Questions should also be asked about the relationship between indoors and out­doors. Tennis (doubles): 36′ X 78′ (playing surface)
60′ X 120′ (overall area)
f. Unequal Plan Proportions A space with unequal proportions (Figure 8—8) is one in which length is greater than width or vice versa. Backyard basketball: 25′ X 25′ minimum
h. For example, the designer may need to look for especially open or generous areas of the site for spaces that are particularly large. This should be done so that the observations and recommendations of the site analysis can be con­tinually referred to during the first tries at placing the various spaces and elements on the site. Bench: seat depth: 18"
seat length: 2′-6" linear feet/person
e. Eating
a. In this situation, the designer should attempt to place the space or element where as many of the ideal conditions as possible are located without jeopardizing the

Figure 8-4
A diagram that has all the spaces drawn as circles is like a building in which all the rooms are square. For exam­ple, an outdoor living and entertaining space ideally should be located in a place that has partial shade, views of attractive site features, and direct access to the inside of the house. Problems arise when a space is too large for a particular area of the site. Proportions should vary as intended uses vary. Location
With a firm comprehension of the size needed for required spaces and elements, the designer is now ready to start actually drawing a functional diagram. Internal subdivision
6. Generally, spaces can have equal plan proportions or unequal plan proportions. Elevation change
Each of these factors is addressed individually in the following paragraphs, al­though each should be considered in conjunction with the others in actual practice. Storage
a. Proportion
Another factor that should be taken into account when drawing the functional dia­gram is proportion. Some information is illustrated in Table 8—1. Two people
Chair by itself: 2′ X 2′
Table by itself: 2′ X 2′
Minimum area needed: 2′-6" X 5 Preferred area:

b. Figure 8-7
The outside entry foyer may have equal plan proportions to suggest stopping and gathering. Each space and element must fit its se­lected location. In most design professions, it is common to put ideas on paper that are not perfect or completely worked out during this conceptual phase.

Updated: 30.10.2014 — 21:25