Preliminary Design and Design Principles

It is not unusual for the designer to study a series of alternatives and refinements during preliminary de­sign. The term semirealistic means that the graphic symbols combine realism with abstraction. The aesthetics of the entire design as well as individual ele­ments within the design are primary concerns during preliminary design. These principles help the designer create a visually pleasing design solution. Clients’ Feedback
The preliminary design can usually be understood by the clients with explanations by the designer, though some clients have difficulty understanding a plan drawing re­gardless of how nice it looks. The second factor, called form composition, is the study of the exact location of all two-dimensional edges and lines of the design. The clients often see things within the preliminary design that need to be changed. Although the functional diagrams also showed the entire design solution, they did so in a more general and functional man­ner. In a way, preliminary design is the first complete picture of the proposed design. It is improper for the designer to possess a “take it or leave it” attitude toward the design. Likewise, it is important for the clients to give feedback. The first is care­ful consideration of the aesthetic organization and appearance of the design based on knowledge and application of three basic design principles: order, unity, and rhythm. Likewise, the designer may want to restudy portions of the design in order to improve it. The designer needs to know how the clients feel about the design in order to understand whether or not it meets the clients’ expectations. In other words, the graphic symbols are stylized impressions of the actual elements. The objectives of this chapter are to (1) discuss the definition and purpose of a preliminary design, (2) outline the process for developing a preliminary design, and (3) discuss the basic principles of design. The basic principles of design are also taken into account to create an overall design pleasing to the eye. For example, the de­signer might choose between stone or brick, wood or concrete, deciduous or evergreen, and so forth. Ultimately, the design will be something the clients live with day in and day out, and so it must be acceptable to them. This is critical for both the designer and the clients. The preliminary design is an intermediate solution that requires further refine­ment based on the reactions of the clients and/or the designer. This step begins to establish the visual style or theme of the design. Although decisions are not made about specific patterns of ma­terials, the designer does select among general material types. The organization of all these factors in a functional diagram furnishes the structure and foundation for the next step of the design process: preliminary design. They are apt to feel more positive toward a solution when they have been involved in its creation. Design Appearance and Aesthetics
One of the major purposes of preliminary design is to study the design appearance of the spaces and elements. Because all the elements are being studied in a coordinated effort, the designer may very well see things differently in comparison to earlier phases, and thus may want to make appropriate adjustments. INTRODUCTION
Chapter 8 discussed how functional diagrams are used to establish the overall func­tional and spatial organization of a design during the first step of the design phase. In a preliminary plan, trees resemble trees, a deck seems believable because of the wood symbols, and pavement is understandable because the clients can see stone, brick, or concrete represented on the plan. Frequently, the preliminary design is the clients’ first exposure to the design, and it is often their first chance to voice thoughts and feelings about it to the designer. The third factor examined in preliminary design is spatial composition. Preliminary design starts with the functional diagram and ends with an illustra­tive site plan, which may be supplemented with sections, elevations, and perspectives depicting all the elements of the design in a semirealistic graphic manner. DEFINITION AND PURPOSE
Preliminary design is the first step of the design process in which a freehand illustra­tive site plan is prepared in a semirealistic graphic manner. Each element is studied as a portion of the overall design, not as an isolated or separate piece. Coordination of Elements
Another purpose of preliminary design is to study the visual relationships among the design elements.

Updated: 31.10.2014 — 02:53