A corner of the rectangle is also the center of the square. Figure 10-20 shows two different compositions, each consisting of the same forms. Rarely, however, will more than two different forms work together to create a recognizably consistent theme. The narrow, angular piece of material in this area has the tendency to crack, especially in the cycle of freezing and thawing. 3. Some themes are made up of only one type of form; others include two. One last guideline for combining forms is to have one form dominate in a composition. When acute angles make up a portion of a space intended for people to use, such as an eating space or an entertainment space, they produce a wasted and useless area because of their extremely narrow dimensions (Figure 10-25). The third guideline for combining forms is to establish form identity. These acute angles should be avoided for the following reasons:
1. They are (1) aligning component parts, (2) avoiding acute angles, (3) establishing form identity, and (4) form domination. Figure 10-20
Form-to-form relationships are important in establishing visually attractive design compositions. In creating form compositions, the designer must also consider the relationships between adjoining forms and their component parts. The first and foremost guideline is that the component parts of each form coincide, or be aligned, with the location of the component parts of adjoining forms. When this occurs, it is best to either eliminate the lost form or increase its identity by changing its size or position. Although some of the compositions may at first seem fairly well organized and visually acceptable, some of the relationships of lines and shapes within them create disturbing acute angles. On the other hand, Figure 10-27 illustrates shapes within the composition that do not lend adequate visual support to the total composition. These relationships are referred to as form-to-form relationships. For example, the circle and square shown in the composition in Figure 10-26 can be seen as identifiable shapes, with each lending some of its character to the overall composition. Although there may be some instances where these guidelines will not be suitable, in most cases they should be considered. An acute angle is one having less than 45 degrees. and legible as distinct forms. The difference between these compositions is the relative positioning of the forms within each composition. The second guideline for combining forms is to avoid the creation of acute angles. For example, notice the alignment of the various components in the composition on the right side of Figure 10-21. Figure 10-28
One form in a composition should usually dominate. In summary, these four guidelines for combining forms in a composition are valuable in organizing forms. When acute angles are formed at the edge of a planting bed, they create areas where it is difficult, if not impossible, to grow shrubs or even ground cover (Figure 10-24). Here, none of the forms’ components align with each other. Figure 10-25
Acute angles within outdoor spaces create wasted areas. 2. Figure 10-22
Acute angles should be avoided in design compositions. This composition is, of course, considered to be very weak. This provides greater form identity and adheres to the principle of dominance discussed in Chapter 9. When created within or at the edge of pavement areas, they create areas that are structurally weak and subject to breaking and cracking (Figure 10—23). It should be obvious that composition “B” seems more organized, whereas composition “A” tends to suggest random placement of forms. Figure 10—22 shows a variety of form compositions with acute angles. By contrast, the internal relationship of the components on the left side of Figure 10-21 has an absence of
Component parts of adjoining forms should coincide and align with each other.