The designer often uses preliminary design as an exploratory step to study different ideas, especially if alternative design solutions are prepared. But as the name itself suggests, decisions made about these key issues are open to change. The master plan is the culmination of all the designer’s efforts and is sometimes the end of the designer’s involvement with the clients. The master plan builds on all the previous steps of the design process to formulate a proposed design that the clients will use to guide the development of their residential site. The design theme, the overall organization of design elements, and the tentative selection of materials collectively establish the visual character of the proposed design. Other times, the designer carries the project on to subsequent phases as discussed in Chapter 4. First, it establishes the two – and three-dimensional spatial frameworks of the outdoor environment through form composition and spatial composition. The more complete and detailed decisions about the design are made during the preparation of the master plan after feedback has been received from the clients regarding the preliminary design. The two-dimensional forms creatively organize and coordinate three-dimensional elements such as earth, plant materials, walls, fences, and overhead structures to create outdoor rooms.